Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2014
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Description of Operations and Principles of Consolidation. KLA-Tencor Corporation (“KLA-Tencor” or the “Company”) is a leading supplier of process control and yield management solutions for the semiconductor and related nanoelectronics industries. Headquartered in Milpitas, California, KLA-Tencor has subsidiaries both in the United States and in key markets throughout the world.
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of KLA-Tencor and its majority-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
Management Estimates. The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions in applying the Company's accounting policies that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities) at the date of the Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash Equivalents and Marketable Securities. All highly liquid debt instruments with original or remaining maturities of less than three months at the date of purchase are considered to be cash equivalents. Marketable securities are generally classified as available-for-sale for use in current operations, if required, and are reported at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, presented as a separate component of stockholders’ equity under the caption “Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss).” All realized gains and losses and unrealized losses resulting from declines in fair value that are other than temporary are recorded in earnings in the period of occurrence. The specific identification method is used to determine the realized gains and losses on investments. For all investments in debt and equity securities, the Company assesses whether the impairment is other than temporary. If the fair value of a debt security is less than its amortized cost basis, an impairment is considered other than temporary if (i) the Company has the intent to sell the security or it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the security before recovery of its entire amortized cost basis, or (ii) the Company does not expect to recover the entire amortized cost of the security. If an impairment is considered other than temporary based on condition (i), the entire difference between the amortized cost and the fair value of the security is recognized in earnings. If an impairment is considered other than temporary based on condition (ii), the amount representing credit losses, defined as the difference between the present value of the cash flows expected to be collected and the amortized cost basis of the debt security, will be recognized in earnings, and the amount relating to all other factors will be recognized in other comprehensive income (loss). The Company evaluates both qualitative and quantitative factors such as duration and severity of the unrealized losses, credit ratings, default and loss rates of the underlying collateral, structure and credit enhancements to determine if a credit loss may exist.
Non-Marketable Equity Securities and Other Investments. KLA-Tencor acquires certain equity investments for the promotion of business and strategic objectives, and, to the extent these investments continue to have strategic value, the Company typically does not attempt to reduce or eliminate the inherent market risks. Non-marketable equity securities and other investments are recorded at historical cost. Non-marketable equity securities and other investments are included in “Other non-current assets” on the balance sheet. Non-marketable equity securities are subject to a periodic impairment review; however, there are no open-market valuations, and the impairment analysis requires significant judgment. This analysis includes assessment of the investee’s financial condition, the business outlook for its products and technology, its projected results and cash flow, the likelihood of obtaining subsequent rounds of financing and the impact of any relevant contractual equity preferences held by the Company or others.
Variable Interest Entities. KLA-Tencor uses a qualitative approach in assessing the consolidation requirement for variable interest entities. The approach focuses on identifying which enterprise has the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the variable interest entity’s economic performance and which enterprise has the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the variable interest entity. In the event that the Company is the primary beneficiary of a variable interest entity, the assets, liabilities, and results of operations of the variable interest entity will be included in the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements. The Company has concluded that none of the Company’s equity investments require consolidation as per the Company's most recent qualitative assessment.
Inventories. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (on a first-in, first-out basis) or market. Demonstration units are stated at their manufacturing cost and written down to their net realizable value. The Company reviews and sets standard costs semi-annually at current manufacturing costs in order to approximate actual costs. The Company’s manufacturing overhead standards for product costs are calculated assuming full absorption of forecasted spending over projected volumes, adjusted for excess capacity. Abnormal inventory costs such as costs of idle facilities, excess freight and handling costs, and spoilage are recognized as current period charges. The Company writes down product inventory based on forecasted demand and technological obsolescence and parts inventory based on forecasted usage. These factors are impacted by market and economic conditions, technology changes, new product introductions and changes in strategic direction and require estimates that may include uncertain elements. Actual demand may differ from forecasted demand, and such differences may have a material effect on recorded inventory values.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts. A majority of the Company’s trade receivables are derived from sales to large multinational semiconductor manufacturers throughout the world. In order to monitor potential credit losses, the Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition. An allowance for doubtful accounts is maintained for probable credit losses based upon the Company’s assessment of the expected collectibility of the accounts receivable. The allowance for doubtful accounts is reviewed on a quarterly basis to assess the adequacy of the allowance.
Property and Equipment. Property and equipment are recorded at cost, net of accumulated depreciation. Depreciation of property and equipment is based on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The following table sets forth the estimated useful life for various asset categories:
Construction-in-process assets are not depreciated until the assets are placed in service. Depreciation expense for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2014, 2013 and 2012 was $51.1 million, $49.3 million and $45.8 million, respectively.
Business Combinations. KLA-Tencor allocates the fair value of the purchase consideration of the Company's acquisitions to the tangible assets, liabilities, and intangible assets acquired, including in-process research and development (“IPR&D”), based on their estimated fair values. The excess of the fair value of purchase consideration over the fair values of these identifiable assets and liabilities is recorded as goodwill. IPR&D is initially capitalized at fair value as an intangible asset with an indefinite life and assessed for impairment thereafter. When a project underlying reported IPR&D is completed, the corresponding amount of IPR&D is reclassified as an amortizable purchased intangible asset and is amortized over the asset’s estimated useful life. Acquisition-related expenses and restructuring costs are recognized separately from the business combination and are expensed as incurred.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets. KLA-Tencor assesses goodwill for impairment annually as well as whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Long-lived intangible assets are tested for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. See Note 6, “Goodwill and Purchased Intangible Assets” for a detailed description.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets. KLA-Tencor evaluates the carrying value of its long-lived assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the asset may be impaired. An impairment loss is recognized when estimated future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset, including disposition, are less than the carrying value of the asset. Such an impairment charge would be measured as the excess of the carrying value of the asset over its fair value.
Concentration of Credit Risk. Financial instruments that potentially subject KLA-Tencor to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash equivalents, short-term marketable securities, trade accounts receivable and derivative financial instruments used in hedging activities. The Company invests in a variety of financial instruments, such as, but not limited to, certificates of deposit, corporate debt and municipal securities, United States Treasury and Government agency securities, and equity securities and, by policy, limits the amount of credit exposure with any one financial institution or commercial issuer. The Company has not experienced any material credit losses on its investments.
A majority of the Company's trade receivables are derived from sales to large multinational semiconductor manufacturers located throughout the world, with a majority located in Asia. In recent years, the Company's customer base has become increasingly concentrated due to corporate consolidation, acquisitions and business closures, and to the extent that these customers experience liquidity issues in the future, the Company may be required to incur additional bad debt expense with respect to trade receivables. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition and generally requires no collateral to secure accounts receivable. The Company maintains an allowance for potential credit losses based upon expected collectibility risk of all accounts receivable. In addition, the Company may utilize letters of credit or non-recourse factoring to mitigate credit risk when considered appropriate.
The Company is exposed to credit loss in the event of non-performance by counterparties on the foreign exchange contracts that the Company uses in hedging activities and in certain factoring transactions. These counterparties are large international financial institutions, and to date no such counterparty has failed to meet its financial obligations to the Company under such contracts.
The following customers each accounted for more than 10% of total revenues for the indicated periods:
The following customers each accounted for more than 10% of net accounts receivable as of the dates indicated below:
Foreign Currency. The functional currencies of KLA-Tencor’s foreign subsidiaries are the local currencies, except as described below. Accordingly, all assets and liabilities of these foreign operations are translated to U.S. dollars at current period end exchange rates, and revenues and expenses are translated to U.S. dollars using average exchange rates in effect during the period. The gains and losses from foreign currency translation of these subsidiaries’ financial statements are recorded directly into a separate component of stockholders’ equity under the caption “Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss).”
The Company's manufacturing subsidiaries in Singapore, Israel, Germany and China use the U.S. dollar as their functional currency. Accordingly, monetary assets and liabilities in non-functional currency of these subsidiaries are remeasured using exchange rates in effect at the end of the period. Revenues and costs in local currency are remeasured using average exchange rates for the period, except for costs related to those balance sheet items that are remeasured using historical exchange rates. The resulting remeasurement gains and losses are included in the Consolidated Statements of Operations as incurred.
Derivative Financial Instruments. KLA-Tencor uses financial instruments, such as forward exchange contracts and currency options, to hedge a portion of, but not all, existing and forecasted foreign currency denominated transactions. The purpose of the Company's foreign currency program is to manage the effect of exchange rate fluctuations on certain foreign currency denominated revenues, costs and eventual cash flows. The effect of exchange rate changes on forward exchange contracts is expected to offset the effect of exchange rate changes on the underlying hedged items. The Company believes these financial instruments do not subject the Company to speculative risk that would otherwise result from changes in currency exchange rates.
All of the Company's derivative financial instruments are recorded at fair value based upon quoted market prices for comparable instruments adjusted for risk of counterparty non-performance. For derivative instruments designated and qualifying as cash flow hedges of forecasted foreign currency denominated transactions expected to occur within twelve months, the effective portion of the gain or loss on these hedges is reported as a component of “Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)” in stockholders’ equity, and is reclassified into earnings when the hedged transaction affects earnings. If the transaction being hedged fails to occur, or if a portion of any derivative is (or becomes) ineffective, the gain or loss on the associated financial instrument is recorded immediately in earnings. For derivative instruments used to hedge existing foreign currency denominated assets or liabilities, the gains or losses on these hedges are recorded immediately in earnings to offset the changes in the fair value of the assets or liabilities being hedged.
Warranty. The Company provides standard warranty coverage on its systems for 40 hours per week for 12 months, providing labor and parts necessary to repair the systems during the warranty period. The Company accounts for the estimated warranty cost as a charge to costs of revenues when revenue is recognized. The estimated warranty cost is based on historical product performance and field expenses. Utilizing actual service records, the Company calculates the average service hours and parts expense per system and applies the actual labor and overhead rates to determine the estimated warranty charge. The Company updates these estimated charges on a quarterly basis. The actual product performance and/or field expense profiles may differ, and in those cases the Company adjusts its warranty accruals accordingly (see Note 13, “Commitments and Contingencies”).
Revenue Recognition. The Company recognizes revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the selling price is fixed or determinable, and collectibility is reasonably assured. The Company derives revenue from three sources—sales of systems, spare parts and services. In general, the Company recognizes revenue for systems when the system has been installed, is operating according to predetermined specifications and is accepted by the customer. When a customer delays installation for delivered products for which the Company has demonstrated a history of successful installation and acceptance, the Company recognizes revenue upon customer acceptance. Under certain circumstances, however, the Company recognizes revenue prior to acceptance from the customer, as follows:
In circumstances in which the Company recognizes revenue prior to installation, the portion of revenue associated with installation is deferred based on estimated fair value, and that revenue is recognized upon completion of the installation.
In many instances, products are sold in stand-alone arrangements. Services are sold separately through renewals of annual maintenance contracts. The Company also allows for multiple element revenue arrangements in cases where certain elements of a sales arrangement are not delivered and accepted in one reporting period. To determine the relative fair value of each element in a revenue arrangement, the Company allocates arrangement consideration based on the selling price hierarchy. For substantially all of the arrangements with multiple deliverables pertaining to products and services, the Company uses vendor-specific objective evidence (“VSOE”) or third-party evidence (“TPE”) to allocate the selling price to each deliverable. The Company determines TPE based on historical prices charged for products and services when sold on a stand-alone basis. When the Company is unable to establish relative selling price using VSOE or TPE, the Company uses estimated selling price (“ESP”) in its allocation of arrangement consideration. The objective of ESP is to determine the price at which the Company would transact a sale if the product or service were sold on a stand-alone basis. ESP could potentially be used for new or customized products. The Company regularly reviews relative selling prices and maintains internal controls over the establishment and updates of these estimates.
In a multiple element revenue arrangement, the Company defers revenue recognition associated with the relative fair value of each undelivered element until that element is delivered to the customer. To be considered a separate element, the product or service in question must represent a separate unit of accounting, which means that such product or service must fulfill the following criteria: (a) the delivered item(s) has value to the customer on a stand-alone basis; and (b) if the arrangement includes a general right of return relative to the delivered item(s), delivery or performance of the undelivered
item(s) is considered probable and substantially in the control of the Company. If the arrangement does not meet all the above criteria, the entire amount of the sales contract is deferred until all elements are accepted by the customer.
Trade-in rights are occasionally granted to customers to trade in tools in connection with subsequent purchases. The Company estimates the value of the trade-in right and reduces the revenue recognized on the initial sale. This amount is recognized at the earlier of the exercise of the trade-in right or the expiration of the trade-in right.
Spare parts revenue is recognized when the product has been shipped, risk of loss has passed to the customer and collection of the resulting receivable is probable.
Service and maintenance contract revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the maintenance contract. Revenue from services performed in the absence of a maintenance contract, including consulting and training revenue, is recognized when the related services are performed and collectibility is reasonably assured.
The Company sells stand-alone software that is subject to the software revenue recognition guidance. The Company periodically reviews selling prices to determine whether VSOE exists, and in some situations where the Company is unable to establish VSOE for undelivered elements, such as post-contract service, revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the service contract.
The Company also defers the fair value of non-standard warranty bundled with equipment sales as unearned revenue. Non-standard warranty includes services incremental to the standard 40-hour per week coverage for 12 months. Non-standard warranty is recognized ratably as revenue when the applicable warranty term period commences.
The deferred system profit balance equals the amount of deferred system revenue that was invoiced and due on shipment, less applicable product and warranty costs. Deferred system revenue represents the value of products that have been shipped and billed to customers which have not met the Company's revenue recognition criteria. Deferred system profit does not include the profit associated with product shipments to certain customers in Japan, to whom title does not transfer until customer acceptance. Shipments to such customers in Japan are classified as inventory at cost until the time of acceptance.
Research and Development Costs. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
Strategic Development Agreements. Gross engineering, research and development expenses were partially offset by $8.2 million, $12.4 million and $6.9 million in external funding received under certain strategic development programs, primarily from government grants, in the fiscal years ended June 30, 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively.
Shipping and Handling Costs. Shipping and handling costs are included as a component of cost of sales.
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation Plans. The Company accounts for stock-based awards granted to employees for services based on the fair value of those awards. The fair value of stock-based awards is measured at the grant date and is recognized as expense over the employee’s requisite service period. The fair value is determined using a Black-Scholes valuation model for stock options and for purchase rights under the Employee Stock Purchase Plan. The Black-Scholes option-pricing model requires the input of assumptions, including the option’s expected term and the expected price volatility of the underlying stock. The expected stock price volatility assumption is based on the market-based historical implied volatility from traded options of the Company's common stock. The fair value for restricted stock units granted without “dividend equivalent” rights is determined using the closing price of the Company's common stock on the grant date, adjusted to exclude the present value of dividends which are not accrued on the restricted stock units. The fair value for restricted stock units granted with “dividend equivalent” rights is determined using the closing price of the Company's common stock on the grant date. The award holder is not entitled to received payments under dividend equivalent rights unless the associated restricted stock unit award vests (i.e., the award holder is entitled to receive credits, payable in cash or shares of the Company's common stock, equal to the cash dividends that would have been received on the shares of common stock underlying the restricted stock units had the shares been issued and outstanding on the dividend record date, but such dividend equivalents are only paid subject to the recipient satisfying the vesting requirements of the underlying award). The Company has elected not to include the indirect tax effects of stock-based compensation deductions when calculating the windfall benefits and therefore recognizes the full effect of these deductions in the income statement in the period in which the taxable event occurs.
Accounting for Cash-Based Long-Term Incentive Compensation. Cash-based long-term incentive (“Cash LTI”) awards issued to employees under the Company's Cash LTI program vest in four equal installments, with 25% of the aggregate amount of the Cash LTI award vesting on each yearly anniversary of the grant date over a four-year period. In order to receive payments under a Cash LTI award, participants must remain employed by the Company as of the applicable award vesting date. Compensation expense related to the Cash LTI awards is recognized over the vesting term, which is adjusted for the impact of estimated forfeitures.
Advertising Expenses. Advertising costs are expensed as incurred.
Income Taxes. The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with the authoritative guidance, which requires that deferred tax assets and liabilities be recognized using enacted tax rates for the effect of temporary differences between the book and tax bases of recorded assets and liabilities. The guidance also requires that deferred tax assets be reduced by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that a portion of the deferred tax asset will not be realized. The Company has determined that a valuation allowance is necessary against a portion of the deferred tax assets, but it anticipates that its future taxable income will be sufficient to recover the remainder of its deferred tax assets. However, should there be a change in the Company’s ability to recover its deferred tax assets that are not subject to a valuation allowance, the Company could be required to record an additional valuation allowance against such deferred tax assets. This would result in an increase to the Company’s tax provision in the period in which the Company determines that the recovery is not probable.
The Company applies a two-step approach, based on authoritative guidance, to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained in audit, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. The Company reevaluates these uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. This evaluation is based on factors including, but not limited to, changes in facts or circumstances, changes in tax law, effectively settled issues under audit and new audit activity. Any change in these factors could result in the recognition of a tax benefit or an additional charge to the tax provision.
Earnings Per Share. Basic earnings per share (“EPS”) is calculated by dividing net income available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share is calculated by using the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period increased to include the number of additional shares of common stock that would have been outstanding if the dilutive potential shares of common stock had been issued. The dilutive effect of outstanding options and restricted stock units is reflected in diluted earnings per share by application of the treasury stock method. The dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share when a net loss is recorded for the period as their effect would be anti-dilutive.
Contingencies and Litigation. The Company is subject to the possibility of losses from various contingencies. Considerable judgment is necessary to estimate the probability and amount of any loss from such contingencies. An accrual is made when it is probable that a liability has been incurred or an asset has been impaired and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. The Company accrues a liability and recognizes as expense the estimated costs expected to be incurred over the next twelve months to defend or settle asserted and unasserted claims existing as of the balance sheet date. See Note 13, “Commitments and Contingencies” and Note 14, “Litigation and Other Legal Matters” for a detailed description.
Reclassifications. Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year financial statements to conform to the current year presentation. The reclassifications had no effect on the Consolidated Statements of Operations or Cash Flows.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2011, the Financial Accounting Standard Board ("FASB") issued an accounting standard update requiring enhanced disclosure about certain financial instruments and derivative instruments that are offset in the balance sheet or subject to an enforceable master netting arrangement or similar agreement. The Company adopted the disclosure requirement in the first quarter of fiscal year ended June 30, 2014 and it did not have an impact on the financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In February 2013, the FASB issued an accounting standard update on the reporting of reclassifications out of accumulated other comprehensive income of various components, which was originally deferred by the FASB in December 2011. The February 2013 update does not change the current requirements for reporting net income or other comprehensive income in financial statements. However, this update requires an entity to present parenthetically (on the face of the financial statements, in the notes or, in some cases, cross-referenced to related footnote disclosures) significant amounts reclassified from each component of accumulated other comprehensive income and the income statement line items affected by the reclassification. The amendment reflected in the February 2013 update was adopted by the Company in the first quarter of fiscal year ended June 30, 2014 and it did not have an impact on the financial position, results of operations or cash flows as it is disclosure-only in nature.
Updates Not Yet Effective
In July 2013, the FASB issued an accounting standard update that provides explicit guidance on the financial statement presentation of an unrecognized tax benefit when a net operating loss carryforward, a similar tax loss or a tax credit carryforward exists. Under the new standard update, in most circumstances, an unrecognized tax benefit, or a portion of an unrecognized tax benefit, should be presented in the Company's financial statements as a reduction to a deferred tax asset for a net operating loss carryforward, a similar tax loss or a tax credit carryforward. This accounting standard update will be effective for our interim period ending September 30, 2014 and applied prospectively with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect that the requirement will have an impact on its financial position, result of operation or cash flows as it is disclosure-only in nature.
In May 2014, the FASB issued an accounting standard update regarding revenue from customer contracts to transfer goods and services or enter into contracts for the transfer of non-financial assets (unless covered by other standards for example insurance or lease contracts). Under the new guidance, an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The updates are effective for the Company beginning the first quarter of the fiscal year ending June 30, 2018. Early application is not permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this accounting standard update on the consolidated financial statements.
In June 2014, the FASB issued an accounting standard update regarding stock-based compensation that clarifies the accounting when terms of an award provide that a performance target could be achieved after the requisite service period. The amendments require that a performance target that affects vesting which could be achieved after the requisite service period be treated as a performance condition. The update is effective for the Company beginning in the first quarter of the Company's fiscal year ending June 30, 2017, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this accounting standard update on the consolidated financial statements.