DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Description of Business and Principles of Consolidation. KLA Corporation and its majority-owned subsidiaries (“KLA” or the “Company” and also referred to as “we,” “our,” “us,” or similar references) is a supplier of process equipment, process control equipment, and data analytics products for a broad range of industries, including semiconductors, printed circuit boards (“PCB”) and displays. We provide advanced process control and process-enabling solutions for manufacturing and testing wafers and reticles, integrated circuits (“IC”), packaging, light-emitting diodes, power devices, compound semiconductor devices, microelectromechanical systems (“MEMS”), data storage, PCBs and flat and flexible panel displays, as well as general materials research. We also provide contracted and comprehensive installation and maintenance services across our installed base. Our comprehensive portfolio of inspection, metrology and data analytics products, and related services, helps integrated circuit manufacturers achieve target yield throughout the entire semiconductor fabrication process, from research and development (“R&D”) to final volume production. We develop and sell advanced vacuum deposition and etching process tools, which are used by a broad range of specialty semiconductor customers. We enable electronic device manufacturers to inspect, test and measure PCBs and flat panel displays (“FPD”) and ICs to verify their quality, deposit a pattern of desired electronic circuitry on the relevant substrate and perform three-dimensional shaping of metalized circuits on multiple surfaces. Our advanced products, coupled with our unique yield management software and services, allow us to deliver the solutions our semiconductor, PCB and display customers need to achieve their productivity goals by significantly reducing their risks and costs and improving their overall profitability and return on investment. Headquartered in Milpitas, California, we have subsidiaries both in the United States and in key markets throughout the world.
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of KLA and its majority-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.
Acquisition of Orbotech, Ltd. On February 20, 2019 (“Acquisition Date”), we completed the acquisition of Orbotech Ltd. (“Orbotech”) for $38.86 in cash and 0.25 of a share of our common stock in exchange for each ordinary share of Orbotech, for a total consideration of $3.26 billion. The acquisition of Orbotech is referred to as the “Orbotech Acquisition.” The Orbotech Acquisition was accounted for by applying the acquisition method of accounting for business combinations. The Consolidated Financial Statements in this report include the financial results of Orbotech prospectively from the Acquisition Date. For additional details, refer to Note 6 “Business Combinations.”
Comparability. Effective on the first day of fiscal 2021, we adopted Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 326, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (“ASC 326”). Prior periods were not retrospectively recast and accordingly, the Consolidated Balance Sheet as of June 30, 2020 and the Consolidated Statement of Operations for the years ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 were prepared using accounting standards that were different than those in effect as of and for the year ended June 30, 2021.
Effective on the first day of fiscal 2020, we adopted ASC 842, Leases (“ASC 842”). Prior periods were not retrospectively restated, and accordingly the Consolidated Statement of Operations for the year ended June 30, 2019 was prepared using accounting standards that were different than those in effect for the years ended June 30, 2021 and 2020.
Effective on the first day of fiscal 2019, we adopted ASC 606 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”) using the modified retrospective adoption method.
Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior year’s Consolidated Financial Statements to conform to the current year presentation. The reclassifications did not have material effects on the prior year’s Consolidated Balance Sheets, Statements of Operations, Comprehensive Income and Cash Flows.
Management Estimates. The preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions in applying our accounting policies that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities (and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities) at the date of the Consolidated Financial Statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash Equivalents and Marketable Securities. All highly liquid debt instruments with original or remaining maturities of less than three months at the date of purchase are cash equivalents. Marketable securities are generally classified as available-for-sale for use in current operations, if required, and are reported at fair value, with unrealized gains and non-credit related unrealized losses, net of tax, presented as a separate component of stockholders’ equity under the caption “Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss).”All realized gains and losses are recorded in earnings in the period of occurrence. The
specific identification method is used to determine the realized gains and losses on investments.
We regularly review the available-for-sale debt securities in an unrealized loss position and evaluate the current expected credit loss by considering available information relevant to the collectability of the security, such as historical experience, market data, issuer-specific factors including credit ratings, default and loss rates of the underlying collateral and structure and credit enhancements, current economic conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts. There were no credit losses on available-for-sale debt securities recognized in the years ended June 30, 2021, 2020 and 2019.
If we do not expect to recover the entire amortized cost of the security, the amount representing credit losses, defined as the difference between the present value of the cash flows expected to be collected and the amortized cost basis of the debt security, is recorded as an allowance for credit losses with an offsetting entry to net income, and the amount that is not credit-related is recognized in other comprehensive income (loss). If we have the intent to sell the security or it is more likely than not that we will be required to sell the security before recovery of its entire amortized cost basis, we first write off any previously recognized allowance for credit losses with an offsetting entry to the security’s amortized cost basis. If the allowance has been fully written off and fair value is less than amortized cost basis, we write down the amortized cost basis of the security to its fair value with an offsetting entry to net income.
Investments in Equity Securities. We hold equity securities in publicly and privately held companies for the promotion of business and strategic objectives. Equity securities in publicly held companies, or marketable equity securities, are measured and recorded at fair value on a recurring basis. Equity securities in privately held companies, or non-marketable equity securities, are accounted for at cost, less impairment, plus or minus observable price changes in orderly transactions for identical or similar securities of the same issuer. Non-marketable equity securities are subject to a periodic impairment review; however, since there are no open-market valuations, the impairment analysis requires significant judgment. This analysis includes assessment of the investee’s financial condition, the business outlook for its products and technology, its projected results and cash flow, financing transactions subsequent to the acquisition of the investment, the likelihood of obtaining subsequent rounds of financing and the impact of any relevant contractual equity preferences held by us or the others. Non-marketable equity securities are included in “Other non-current assets” on the balance sheet. Realized and unrealized gains and losses resulting from changes in fair value or the sale of our marketable and non-marketable equity securities are recorded in “Other expense (income), net.”
Variable Interest Entities. We use a qualitative approach in assessing the consolidation requirement for variable interest entities. The approach focuses on identifying which enterprise has the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the variable interest entity’s economic performance and which enterprise has the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits from the variable interest entity. In the event we are the primary beneficiary of a variable interest entity, the assets, liabilities, and results of operations of the variable interest entity will be included in our Consolidated Financial Statements. We have concluded that none of our equity investments require consolidation based on our most recent qualitative assessment.
Inventories. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (on a first-in, first-out basis) or net realizable value. Net realizable value is calculated as the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal and transportation. Demonstration units are stated at their manufacturing cost and written down to their net realizable value. We review and set standard costs semi-annually at current manufacturing costs in order to approximate actual costs. Our manufacturing overhead standards for product costs are calculated assuming full absorption of forecasted spending over projected volumes, adjusted for excess capacity. Abnormal inventory costs such as costs of idle facilities, excess freight and handling costs, and spoilage are recognized as current period charges. We write down product inventory based on forecasted demand and technological obsolescence and service spare parts inventory based on forecasted usage. These factors are impacted by market and economic conditions, technology changes, new product introductions and changes in strategic direction, and require estimates that may include uncertain elements. Actual demand may differ from forecasted demand, and such differences may have a material effect on recorded inventory values.
Allowance for Credit Losses. A majority of our accounts receivable are derived from sales to large multinational semiconductor and electronics manufacturers throughout the world. We maintain an allowance for credit losses for expected uncollectible accounts receivable, which is recorded as an offset to accounts receivable and changes in such are classified as selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) expense in the Consolidated Statements of Income. We assess collectability by reviewing accounts receivable on a collective basis where similar risk characteristics exist and on an individual basis when we identify specific customers with known disputes or collectability issues. The estimate of expected credit losses considers historical credit loss information that is adjusted for current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts. The allowance for credit losses is reviewed on a quarterly basis to assess the adequacy of the allowance. For the year ended June 30, 2021, our assessment considered the impact of COVID-19 and estimates of expected credit and collectability trends. The credit losses recognized on accounts receivable were not significant as of June 30, 2021 and 2020. Volatility in market conditions and evolving credit trends are difficult to predict and may cause variability that may have a material impact on our allowance for
credit losses in future periods.
Property and Equipment. Property and equipment are recorded at cost, net of accumulated depreciation. Depreciation of property and equipment is based on the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The following table sets forth the estimated useful life for various asset categories:
Construction-in-process assets are not depreciated until the assets are placed in service. Depreciation expense for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2021, 2020 and 2019 was $111.1 million, $101.4 million and $72.6 million, respectively.
Leases. Under ASC 842, a contract is or contains a lease when we have the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time. We determine if an arrangement is a lease at inception of the contract, which is the date on which the terms of the contract are agreed to, and the agreement creates enforceable rights and obligations. The commencement date of the lease is the date that the lessor makes an underlying asset available for our use. On the commencement date, leases are evaluated for classification and assets and liabilities are recognized based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term.
The lease term used to calculate the lease liability includes options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the option will be exercised. The right of use (“ROU”) asset is initially measured as the amount of lease liability, adjusted for any initial lease costs, prepaid lease payments and any lease incentives. Variable lease payments, consisting primarily of reimbursement of costs incurred by lessors for common area maintenance, real estate taxes and insurance, are not included in the lease liability and are recognized as they are incurred.
As most of our leases do not provide an implicit rate, we use our incremental borrowing rate at lease commencement to measure ROU assets and lease liabilities. The incremental borrowing rate used by us is based on baseline rates and adjusted by the credit spreads commensurate with our secured borrowing rate, over a similar term. We used the incremental borrowing rate on June 30, 2019 for all leases that commenced on or prior to that date. Operating lease expense is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
We have elected the practical expedient to account for the lease and non-lease components as a single lease component for the majority of our asset classes. For leases with a term of one year or less, we have elected not to record the ROU asset or liability.
Goodwill, Purchased Intangible Assets and Impairment Assessment. Purchased intangible assets that are not considered to have an indefinite useful life are amortized over their estimated useful lives, which generally range from six months to nine years. The carrying values of our intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be fully recoverable. Recoverability of finite-lived intangible assets is measured by comparison of the carrying value of the asset to the future undiscounted cash flows the asset is expected to generate. Recoverability of indefinite-lived intangible assets is measured by comparison of the carrying value of the asset to its fair value. If the asset is considered to be impaired, the amount of any impairment is measured as the difference between the carrying value and the fair value.
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price in a business combination over the fair value of the net tangible and intangible assets acquired. We assess goodwill for impairment annually during our third fiscal quarter and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be fully recoverable. We have the option to perform an assessment of qualitative factors of impairment prior to necessitating a quantitative impairment test. The former is performed when the fair value of a reporting unit historically has significantly exceeded the carrying value of its net assets and, based on current operations, is expected to continue to do so. In the qualitative assessment, if we determine that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than the carrying value, a quantitative test is then performed, which involves a comparison of the estimated fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying value including goodwill. We determine the fair value of a reporting unit using the income approach which uses discounted cash flow analysis, the market approach when deemed appropriate and the necessary information is available, or a combination of both. If the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, a goodwill impairment charge is recorded for the difference. See Note 7 “Goodwill and Purchased Intangible Assets” for additional information. Any further impairment charges could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and net asset value in the quarter and fiscal year in which we recognize the impairment charge.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets. We evaluate the carrying value of our long-lived assets whenever events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the asset may be impaired. An impairment loss is recognized when estimated future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset, including disposition, are less than the carrying value of the asset. Such an impairment charge would be measured as the excess of the carrying value of the asset over its fair value.
Concentration of Credit Risk. Financial instruments that potentially subject us to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash equivalents, short-term marketable securities, trade accounts receivable and derivative financial instruments used in hedging activities. We invest in a variety of financial instruments, such as, but not limited to, certificates of deposit, corporate debt and municipal securities, United States Treasury and Government agency securities, and equity securities and, by policy, we limit the amount of credit exposure with any one financial institution or commercial issuer. We have not experienced any material credit losses on our investments.
A majority of our accounts receivable are derived from sales to large multinational semiconductor and electronics manufacturers located throughout the world, with a majority located in Asia. In recent years, our customer base has become increasingly concentrated due to corporate consolidations, acquisitions and business closures, and to the extent that these customers experience liquidity issues in the future, we may be required to reserve for potential credit losses with respect to trade receivables. We perform ongoing credit evaluations of our customers’ financial condition and generally require little to no collateral to secure accounts receivable. We maintain an allowance for potential credit losses based upon expected collectability risk of all accounts receivable. In addition, we may utilize letters of credit (“LC”), credit insurance or non-recourse factoring to mitigate credit risk when considered appropriate.
We are exposed to credit loss in the event of non-performance by counterparties on the foreign exchange contracts that we use in hedging activities and in certain factoring transactions. These counterparties are large international financial institutions, and to date no such counterparty has failed to meet its financial obligations to us under such contracts.
The following customers each accounted for more than 10% of total revenues, primarily in the Semiconductor Process Control (“SPC”) segment for the indicated periods:
The following customers each accounted for more than 10% of net accounts receivable as of the dates indicated below:
Foreign Currency. The functional currencies of our foreign subsidiaries are primarily the local currencies, except as described below. Accordingly, all assets and liabilities of these foreign operations are translated to U.S. dollars at current period end exchange rates, and revenues and expenses are translated to U.S. dollars using average exchange rates in effect during the period. The gains and losses from foreign currency translation of these subsidiaries’ financial statements are recorded directly into a separate component of stockholders’ equity under the caption “Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss).”
Our manufacturing subsidiaries in Singapore, Israel, Germany, and the United Kingdom use the U.S. dollar as their functional currency. Accordingly, monetary assets and liabilities in non-functional currency of these subsidiaries are remeasured using exchange rates in effect at the end of the period. Revenues and costs in local currency are remeasured using average exchange rates for the period, except for costs related to those balance sheet items that are remeasured using historical exchange rates. The resulting remeasurement gains and losses are included in the Consolidated Statements of Operations as incurred.
Derivative Financial Instruments. We use financial instruments, such as forward exchange contracts and currency options, to hedge a portion of, but not all, existing and forecasted foreign currency denominated transactions. The purpose of our foreign currency program is to manage the effect of exchange rate fluctuations on certain foreign currency denominated revenues, costs and eventual cash flows. The effect of exchange rate changes on forward exchange contracts is expected to
offset the effect of exchange rate changes on the underlying hedged items. We also use interest rate lock agreements to hedge the risk associated with the variability of cash flows due to changes in the benchmark interest rate of the intended debt financing. We believe these financial instruments do not subject us to speculative risk that would otherwise result from changes in currency exchange rates or interest rates. All of our derivative financial instruments are recorded at fair value based upon quoted market prices for comparable instruments adjusted for risk of counterparty non-performance.
For derivative instruments designated and qualifying as cash flow hedges of forecasted foreign currency denominated transactions or debt financing expected to occur within 12 to 18 months, the effective portion of the gains or losses is reported in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) (“AOCI”) and reclassified into earnings in the same period or periods during which the hedged transaction affects earnings. In the second quarter of our fiscal year ending June 30, 2019, we early adopted the new accounting guidance for hedge accounting. Prior to adopting this new accounting guidance, time value was excluded from the assessment of effectiveness for derivative instruments designated as cash flow hedges. Time value was amortized on a mark-to-market basis and recognized in earnings over the life of the derivative contract. For derivative contracts executed after adopting the new accounting guidance, the election to include time value for the assessment of effectiveness is made on all forward contracts designated as cash flow hedges. The change in fair value of the derivative is recorded in AOCI until the hedged transaction is recognized in earnings. The assessment of effectiveness of options contracts designated as cash flow hedges continues to exclude time value after adopting the new accounting guidance. The initial value of the component excluded from the assessment of effectiveness is recognized in earnings over the life of the derivative contract. Any differences between change in the fair value of the excluded components and the amounts recognized in earnings are recorded in AOCI. For derivatives that are designated and qualify as a net investment hedge in a foreign operation and that meet the effectiveness requirements, the net gains or losses attributable to changes in spot exchange rates are recorded in cumulative translation within AOCI. The remainder of the change in value of such instruments is recorded in earnings using the mark-to-market approach. Recognition in earnings of amounts previously recorded in cumulative translation is limited to circumstances such as complete or substantially complete liquidation of the net investment in the hedged foreign operations. For derivative instruments that are not designated as hedges, gains and losses are recognized in other expense (income), net. We use foreign currency forward contracts to hedge certain foreign currency denominated assets or liabilities. The gains and losses on these derivative instruments are largely offset by the changes in the fair value of the assets or liabilities being hedged.
Revenue Recognition. We primarily derive revenue from the sale of process control and yield management solutions for the semiconductor and related nanoelectronics industries, maintenance and support of all these products, installation and training services and the sale of spare parts. Our portfolio also includes yield enhancement and production solutions used by manufacturers of PCBs, FPDs, advanced packaging, MEMS and other electronic components.
Our solutions are generally not sold with a right of return, nor have we experienced significant returns from or refunds to our customers.
We account for a contract with a customer when there is approval and commitment from both parties, the rights of the parties are identified, payment terms are identified, the contract has commercial substance and collectability of consideration is probable.
Our revenues are measured based on consideration stipulated in the arrangement with each customer, net of any sales incentives and amounts collected on behalf of third parties, such as sales taxes. The revenues are recognized as separate performance obligations that are satisfied by transferring control of the product or service to the customer.
Our arrangements with our customers include various combinations of products and services, which are generally capable of being distinct and accounted for as separate performance obligations. A product or service is considered distinct if it is separately identifiable from other deliverables in the arrangement and if a customer can benefit from it on its own or with other resources that are readily available to the customer.
The transaction consideration, including any sales incentives, is allocated between separate performance obligations of an arrangement based on the stand-alone selling price (“SSP”) for each distinct product or service. Management considers a variety of factors to determine the SSP, such as, historical stand-alone sales of products and services, discounting strategies and other observable data.
From time to time, our contracts are modified to account for additional, or to change existing, performance obligations. Our contract modifications are generally accounted for prospectively.
We recognize revenue from product sales at a point in time when we have satisfied our performance obligation by transferring control of the product to the customer. We use judgment to evaluate whether control has transferred by considering several indicators, including whether:
•we have a present right to payment;
•the customer has legal title;
•the customer has physical possession;
•the customer has significant risk and rewards of ownership; and
•the customer has accepted the product, or whether customer acceptance is considered a formality based on history of acceptance of similar products (for example, when the customer has previously accepted the same tool, with the same specifications, and when we can objectively demonstrate that the tool meets all of the required acceptance criteria, and when the installation of the system is deemed perfunctory).
Not all of the indicators need to be met for us to conclude that control has transferred to the customer. In circumstances in which revenue is recognized prior to the product acceptance, the portion of revenue associated with our performance obligations to install the product is deferred and recognized upon acceptance.
We enter into volume purchase agreements with some of our customers. We adjust the transaction consideration for estimated credits earned by our customers for such incentives. These credits are estimated based upon the forecasted and actual product sales for any given period and agreed-upon incentive rate. The estimate is updated at each reporting period.
We offer perpetual and term licenses for software products. The primary difference between perpetual and term licenses is the duration over which the customer can benefit from the use of the software, while the functionality and the features of the software are the same. Software is generally bundled with post-contract customer support (“PCS”), which includes unspecified software updates that are made available throughout the entire term of the arrangement. Revenue from software licenses is recognized at a point in time, when the software is made available to the customer. Revenue from PCS is deferred at contract inception and recognized ratably over the service period, or as services are performed.
Services and Spare Parts Revenue
The majority of product sales include a standard to 12-month warranty that is not separately paid for by the customers. The customers may also purchase an extended warranty for periods beyond the initial year as part of the initial product sale. We have concluded that the standard 12-month warranty as well as any extended warranty periods included in the initial product sales are separate performance obligations for most of our products. The estimated fair value of warranty services is deferred and recognized ratably as revenue over the warranty period, as the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits of warranty services provided by us.
Additionally, we offer product maintenance and support services, which the customer may purchase separately from the standard and extended warranty offered as part of the initial product sale. Revenue from separately negotiated maintenance and support service contracts is also recognized over time based on the terms of the applicable service period. Revenue from services performed in the absence of a maintenance contract, including training revenue, is recognized when the related services are performed. We also sell spare parts, revenue from which is recognized when control over the spare parts is transferred to the customer.
Installation services include connecting and validating configuration of the product. In addition, several testing protocols are completed to confirm the equipment is performing to customer specifications. Revenues from product installation are deferred and recognized at a point in time, once installation is complete.
Our contracts with our customers often include promises to transfer multiple products and services. Each product and service is generally capable of being distinct within the context of the contract and represents a separate performance obligation. Determining the SSP for each distinct performance obligation and allocation of consideration from an arrangement to the individual performance obligations and the appropriate timing of revenue recognition are significant judgments with respect to these arrangements. We typically estimate the SSP of products and services based on observable transactions when the products and services are sold on a stand-alone basis and those prices fall within a reasonable range. We typically have more than one SSP for individual products and services due to the stratification of these products by customers and circumstances. In these instances, we use information such as the size of the customer, geographic region, as well as customization of the products in
determining the SSP. In instances where the SSP is not directly observable, we determine the SSP using information that includes market conditions, entity-specific factors, including discounting strategies, information about the customer or class of customer that is reasonably available and other observable inputs. While changes in the allocation of SSP between performance obligations will not affect the amount of total revenue recognized for a particular contract, any material changes could impact the timing of revenue recognition, which could have a material effect on our financial position and results of operations.
Although the products are generally not sold with a right of return, we may provide other credits or sales incentives, which are accounted for either as variable consideration or material right, depending on the specific terms and conditions of the arrangement. These credits and incentives are estimated at contract inception and updated at the end of each reporting period if and when additional information becomes available.
As outlined above, we use judgments to evaluate whether or not the customer has obtained control of the product and consider several indicators in evaluating whether or not control has transferred to the customer. Not all of the indicators need to be met for us to conclude that control has transferred to the customer.
The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections may result in accounts receivable, contract assets, and contract liabilities (deferred revenue) on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. A receivable is recorded in the period we deliver products or provide services when we have an unconditional right to payment. Contract assets primarily relate to the value of products and services transferred to the customer for which the right to payment is not just dependent on the passage of time. Contract assets are transferred to accounts receivable when rights to payment become unconditional.
A contract liability is recognized when we receive payment or have an unconditional right to payment in advance of the satisfaction of performance. The contract liabilities represent (1) deferred product revenue related to the value of products that have been shipped and billed to customers and for which control has not been transferred to the customers, and (2) deferred service revenue, which is recorded when we receive consideration, or such consideration is unconditionally due, from a customer prior to transferring services to the customer under the terms of a contract. Deferred service revenue typically results from warranty services, and maintenance and other service contracts.
Contract assets and liabilities related to rights and obligations in a contract are recorded net in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Research and Development Costs. R&D costs are expensed as incurred.
Shipping and Handling Costs. Shipping and handling costs are included as a component of cost of sales.
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation Plans. We account for stock-based awards granted to employees for services based on the fair value of those awards. The fair value of stock-based awards is measured at the grant date and is recognized as expense over the employee’s requisite service period. The fair value for restricted stock units (“RSU”) granted without “dividend equivalent” rights is determined using the closing price of our common stock on the grant date, adjusted to exclude the present value of dividends which are not accrued on the RSUs. The fair value for RSUs granted with “dividend equivalent” rights is determined using the closing price of our common stock on the grant date. The award holder is not entitled to receive payments under dividend equivalent rights unless the associated RSU award vests (i.e., the award holder is entitled to receive credits, payable in cash or shares of common stock, equal to the cash dividends that would have been received on the shares of our common stock underlying the RSUs had the shares been issued and outstanding on the dividend record date, but such dividend equivalents are only paid subject to the recipient satisfying the vesting requirements of the underlying award). Compensation expense for RSUs with performance metrics is calculated based upon expected achievement of the metrics specified in the grant, or when a grant contains a market condition, the grant date fair value using a Monte Carlo simulation. The Monte Carlo simulation incorporates estimates of the potential outcomes of the market condition on the grant date fair value of each award. Additionally, we estimate forfeitures based on historical experience and revise those estimates in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from the estimated amounts. The fair value is determined using a Black-Scholes valuation model for purchase rights under our Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”). The Black-Scholes option-pricing model requires the input of assumptions, including the option’s expected term and the expected price volatility of the underlying stock. The expected stock price volatility assumption is based on the market-based historical implied volatility from traded options of our common stock.
Accounting for Cash-Based Long-Term Incentive Compensation. Cash-based long-term incentive (“Cash LTI”) awards issued to employees under our Cash Long-Term Incentive Plan (“Cash LTI Plan”) vest in three or four equal installments, with one-third or one-fourth of the aggregate amount of the Cash LTI award vesting on each yearly anniversary of the grant date over a - or four-year period. In order to receive payments under a Cash LTI award, participants must remain
employed by us as of the applicable award vesting date. Compensation expense related to the Cash LTI awards is recognized over the vesting term and adjusted for the impact of estimated forfeitures.
Accounting for Non-qualified Deferred Compensation Plan. We have a non-qualified deferred compensation plan (known as “Executive Deferred Savings Plan”) under which certain executives and non-employee directors may defer a portion of their compensation. Participants are credited with returns based on their allocation of their account balances among measurement funds. We control the investment of these funds, and the participants remain general creditors of ours. We invest these funds in certain mutual funds and such investments are classified as trading securities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Investments in trading securities are measured at fair value in the statement of financial position. Unrealized holding gains and losses for trading securities are included in earnings. Distributions from the Executive Deferred Savings Plan commence following a participant’s retirement or termination of employment or on a specified date allowed per the Executive Deferred Savings Plan provisions, except in cases where such distributions are required to be delayed in order to avoid a prohibited distribution under Internal Revenue Code Section 409A. Participants can generally elect the distributions to be paid in a lump sum or quarterly cash payments over a scheduled period for up to 15 years and are allowed to make subsequent changes to their existing elections as permissible under the Executive Deferred Savings Plan provisions. The liability associated with the Executive Deferred Savings Plan is included as a component of other current liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Changes in the Executive Deferred Savings Plan liability are recorded in SG&A expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. The expense associated with changes in the liability included in SG&A expense was $56.5 million, $13.3 million and $13.6 million for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. We also have a deferred compensation asset that corresponds to the liability under the Executive Deferred Savings Plan and it is included as a component of other non-current assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Changes in the Executive Deferred Savings Plan assets are recorded as gains (losses), net in SG&A expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. The amount of net gains included in SG&A expense were $56.8 million, $13.9 million and $14.7 million for the fiscal years ended June 30, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Income Taxes. We account for income taxes in accordance with the authoritative guidance, which requires income tax effects for changes in tax laws are recognized in the period in which the law is enacted.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized using enacted tax rates for the effect of temporary differences between the book and tax bases of recorded assets and liabilities. The guidance also requires that deferred tax assets be reduced by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that a portion of the deferred tax asset will not be realized. We have determined that a valuation allowance is necessary against a portion of the deferred tax assets, but we anticipate that our future taxable income will be sufficient to recover the remainder of our deferred tax assets. However, should there be a change in our ability to recover our deferred tax assets that are not subject to a valuation allowance, we could be required to record an additional valuation allowance against such deferred tax assets. This would result in an increase to our tax provision in the period in which we determine that the recovery is not probable.
On a quarterly basis, we provide for income taxes based upon an estimated annual effective income tax rate. The effective tax rate is highly dependent upon the geographic composition of worldwide earnings, tax regulations governing each region, availability of tax credits and the effectiveness of our tax planning strategies. We carefully monitor the changes in many factors and adjust our effective income tax rate on a timely basis. If actual results differ from these estimates, this could have a material effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
The calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax regulations. In accordance with the authoritative guidance on accounting for uncertainty in income taxes, we recognize liabilities for uncertain tax positions based on the two-step process. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained in audit, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. We reevaluate these uncertain tax positions on a quarterly basis. This evaluation is based on factors including, but not limited to, changes in facts or circumstances, changes in tax law, effectively settled issues under audit and new audit activities. Any change in these factors could result in the recognition of a tax benefit or an additional charge to the tax provision.
We record income taxes on the undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries unless the subsidiaries’ earnings are considered indefinitely reinvested outside the U.S. Our effective tax rate would be adversely affected if we change our intent or if such undistributed earnings are needed for U.S. operations because we would be required to provide or pay income taxes on some or all of these undistributed earnings.
Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income. The Tax Cut and Jobs Act includes provisions for Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (“GILTI”) wherein taxes on foreign income are imposed in excess of a deemed return on tangible assets of foreign
corporations. We elected to account for GILTI as a component of current period tax expense starting from the first quarter of the fiscal year ending June 30, 2019.
Business Combinations. We allocate the fair value of the purchase price of our acquisitions to the tangible assets acquired, liabilities assumed, and intangible assets acquired, including in-process research and development (“IPR&D”), based on their estimated fair values at acquisition date. The excess of the fair value of the purchase price over the fair values of these net tangible and intangible assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. Management’s estimates of fair value are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable, but our estimates and assumptions are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which will not exceed one year from the acquisition date, we record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the fair value of the purchase price of our acquisitions, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded to our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
The fair value of IPR&D is initially capitalized as an intangible asset with an indefinite life and assessed for impairment thereafter whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the IPR&D assets may not be recoverable. Impairment of IPR&D is recorded to R&D expenses. When an IPR&D project is completed, the IPR&D is reclassified as an amortizable purchased intangible asset and amortized to costs of revenues over the asset’s estimated useful life.
Acquisition-related expenses are recognized separately from the business combination and are expensed as incurred.
Net Income Per Share. Basic net income per share is calculated by dividing net income available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share is calculated by using the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period increased to include the number of additional shares of common stock that would have been outstanding if the dilutive potential shares of common stock had been issued. The dilutive effect of RSUs and options is reflected in diluted net income per share by application of the treasury stock method. The dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share when a net loss is recorded for the period as their effect would be anti-dilutive.
Contingencies and Litigation. We are subject to the possibility of losses from various contingencies. Considerable judgment is necessary to estimate the probability and amount of any loss from such contingencies. An accrual is made when it is probable that a liability has been incurred or an asset has been impaired and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. We accrue a liability and recognize as expense the estimated costs to defend or settle asserted and unasserted claims existing as of the balance sheet date. See Note 16 “Commitments and Contingencies” and Note 15 “Litigation and Other Legal Matters” for additional details.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
On July 1, 2020 we adopted ASC 326, which was issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) in June 2016 as Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-13 Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (ASC 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The ASU replaced previous incurred loss impairment guidance and established a single expected credit losses allowance framework for financial assets carried at amortized cost. It also eliminated the concept of other-than-temporary impairment and requires credit losses related to certain available-for-sale debt securities to be recorded through an allowance for credit losses. We adopted ASC 326 using the modified retrospective method, which requires a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings to be recognized on the date of adoption and, accordingly, recorded a net decrease of $5.5 million to retained earnings as of July 1, 2020. Please see the “Allowance for Credit Losses” accounting policy above.
In August 2018, the FASB issued an ASU that modifies the existing accounting standards for fair value measurement disclosure. This update eliminates the disclosure of the amount of and reasons for transfers between level 1 and level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, and the policy for the timing of transfers between levels. We adopted this update beginning in the first quarter of our fiscal year ending June 30, 2021 on a retrospective basis and the adoption had no material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued an ASU to amend the disclosure requirements related to defined benefit pension and other post-retirement plans. Some of the changes include adding a disclosure requirement for significant gains and losses related to changes in the benefit obligation for the period and removing the amounts in AOCI expected to be recognized as components of net periodic benefit cost over the next fiscal year. We adopted this update beginning in the first quarter of the fiscal year ending June 30, 2021 on a retrospective basis and the adoption had no material impact on our Consolidated Financial
In August 2018, the FASB issued an ASU to align the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a cloud computing arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. The guidance clarifies which costs should be capitalized including the cost to acquire the license and the related implementation costs. We adopted this update beginning in the first quarter of our fiscal year ending June 30, 2021 on a prospective basis and the adoption had no material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Updates Not Yet Effective
In December 2019, the FASB issued an ASU to simplify the accounting for income taxes in ASC 740, Income Taxes (“ASC 740”). This amendment removes certain exceptions and improves consistent application of accounting principles for certain areas in ASC 740. The update is effective for us beginning in the first quarter of our fiscal year ending June 30, 2022, and early adoption is permitted. We do not expect a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements upon the adoption of this accounting standard update.In August 2020, the FASB issued an ASU to simplify the accounting for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity, including convertible instruments and contracts on an entity’s own equity. The standard eliminates the beneficial conversion feature and cash conversion models, resulting in more convertible instruments being accounted for as a single unit, and modifies the guidance on the computation of earnings per share for convertible instruments and contracts on an entity’s own equity. The update is effective for us in the first quarter of our fiscal year ending June 30, 2023 and can be adopted on a fully retrospective basis or modified retrospective basis. Early adoption is permitted from our first quarter of fiscal year ending June 30, 2022. We are currently evaluating the impact of this ASU on our Consolidated Financial Statements.